10 Miles of Negroes

How African Americans Revolutionized the Civil War
into a War to End Slavery

This book of eyewitness accounts and photographs shows how the actions of thousands of runaway slaves and free blacks changed the war from a conflict to reunite the Union into a war that ended slavery.  In their own words it shows month by month the evolution of events and the actions of Black men and women to "change the course of events."

Read Chapter One

I took my foot in my hand and ran

Slavery ended when the Civil War began. This was neither the intention or desire of either the Union or the Confederacy. It was an unexpected and unwanted result of the war and a reaction to the pressure for freedom from four million people of African descent, slave and free. Most believe that the slaves were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863. This is not only an oversimplification, it is untrue. Lincoln’s presidential proclamation only freed slaves who were still behind enemy lines. Slavery was abolished by the 13th amendment to the United States Constitution, on December 6, 1865, eight months after the surrender of Robert E. Lee and the end of The Confederacy.


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